"Autopoietic learning-neural network-like bio-machinogenesis via semeiogenesis: A unified theory on the cognitive genesis and evolution of biosystems"
Genetic codes were found to have emerged as semeiotic culture of hierarchical tRNA-riboorganismic society in early intracellular micro-environment ("semeiotic culture theory" or "poly-tRNA theory" on the origin of genetic codes)(1, 2). Well-made biomachines such as bee super-organism (= bee eusociety consisting of queens and workers), animal body (= super-organism consisting of germ-line (queen) and somatic-line (worker) unicell diploid animals), and genetic apparatus were found to have evolved by neural-network-like machinogenesis via queen-and-worker-type hierarchical sociogenesis (1). Every of these socio-machinogenesis depends on the society's own specific semiotic system which is considered to be the society's "semiotic culture". Origins and evolution of cognitive and autopoietic characters of various biosytems were discussed, with special emphases on intracellular riboorganismic societies (RNA societies), multi-cellular societies (= multicellular animal body), and multi-individual iso-species society (= Mayr's interbreeding population or "specia"), as well as on various semiotic cultural systems including genetic codes, bee-dance language, hormones (in multi-cellular society = animal body, etc.), pheromones (in "iso-species society"), and human language systems. In case of multicellular animals, worker-cells were found to select a "gene set" (inherited from previous generation's gametes via fertilization) by their active altruistic behaviors to genetically closely related queen (germ-line) cells, whereas the queen cells make "the selected gene set" inherited to the next generation. This division of work constitutes the basis of autopoietic natural selection of gene-sets by the self biosystem in every generation, which will result in active/autopoietic evolution of multicellular animals. Lamarck's use-disuse phenomenon is elegantly explained by this autopoietic natural selection, because somatic cell's behaviors (= "use of organ or somatic cells") can actively select adaptive evolutionary changes (via autopoietically selecting "gene sets" ). We have now reached a new concept that every life is, most plausibly, some kind of autopoietic (self-improving) cognitive system, which can well explain "why organisms behave and evolve 'actively' or 'autopoietically'. References: (1) Ohnishi,K. et al. (2002) Viva Origino 30: 63-78, 2002 (http://www.origin-life.gr.jp/3002/3002en.html). (2) Ohnishi et al., Genome Informatics, 13:71-81, 2003 (http://hc.ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp/JSBi/journal/GI13.html).