"Change in the Form of Evolution: Transition from Primate to Hominid Forms of Social Organization"
The evolution of our species, Homo sapiens, involved a change from biologically based forms of social organization whose forms are the outcome of Darwinian evolution in its various modalities (individual fitness, inclusive fitness, kin selection, mate selection, reciprocal altruism, etc.) to social organization based on (culturally) constructed relations whose form is driven by a new kind of evolution decoupled from Darwinian evolution. Key to understanding this transition are the implications and consequences of increasing individuation among group members for the coherency of group formation. In this paper I will consider, on the one hand, the primate evidence for social organization becoming more problematic as phylogenetically correlated individuation becomes more pronounced and, on the other hand, a radically new form of social organization arising out of an elaboration of cognitive capacities that enabled the formation of conceptual relations among group members that, in turn, provided the basis for societal organization being constituted from “the set of all roles, including their relations, that can be taken by members of the according population” (Kluever, Juergen. 2002. An Essay Concerning Sociocultural Evolution. Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 47)